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A Case of Immune Hemolytic Anemia due to Autoantibodies Against C and e Antigens in a Patient with Paroxysmal Nocturnal Hemoglobinuria and Myelodysplastic Syndrome
발작야간혈색소뇨증과 골수형성이상증후군을 동반한 환자에서 발생한 자가항체 항-C, 항-e에 의한 면역용혈빈혈 1예
The Korean Society of Blood Transfusion 2012;23:78−83
Published online April 30, 2012
© 2012 The Korean Society of Blood Transfusion.

Mi-Jung Park1, Yiel-Hea Seo1, Pil-Whan Park1, Kyung-Hee Kim1, Soon-Ho Park1, Ji-Hun Jeong1, Jae-Hoon Lee2, Jun-Shik Hong2, Jeong-Yeal Ahn1
박미정1ㆍ서일혜1ㆍ박필환1ㆍ김경희1ㆍ박순호1ㆍ정지훈1ㆍ이재훈2ㆍ홍준식2ㆍ안정열1
Abstract
Antiglobulin test-negative hemolytic anemia, thrombophilia, and marrow failure, such as aplastic anemia and myelodysplastic syndrome - refractory anemia (MDS-RA), are the primary clinical manifestations of paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH). Here, we report on a case of a 56-year-old male patient diagnosed with PNH, MDS-RA, and immune hemolytic anemia (IHA). The patient was transferred to the hospital with an impression of hemolytic anemia and pulmonary embolism. Positive results were observed on direct and indirect antiglobulin tests, and alloantibody, anti-C and anti-e, autoantibodies were identified. In addition, C and e antigens were found in Rh subgrouping. Therefore, due to the presence of autoantibodies against C and e antigens, we assumed that the cause of IHA was autoimmune reaction. Spherocytosis, increased osmotic fragility test, and positivity on direct and indirect antiglobulin tests were not considered characteristics of PNH. Therefore, without the presence of pulmonary embolism and MDS-RA, it is possible that autoimmune hemolytic anemia was considered the only reason for the hemolytic anemia, and that PNH could be overlooked. In patients with PH, use of washed RBCs during transfusion is not necessary. PNH screening test is recommended for patients who have experienced a thromboembolic event and intravascular hemolysis or MDS-RA. In order to obtain accurate information regarding the percentage of GPI-AP-deficient RBCs, flow cytometric analysis should be performed prior to transfusion. (Korean J Blood Transfus 2012;23: 17-83)
Keywords : Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria, Myelodysplastic syndrome, Immune hemolytic anemia

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